COVID has claimed almost five million lives and caused huge economic disruption. The required level of investment in reducing the risk of a disease outbreak of this magnitude was not made despite warnings that a pandemic was inevitable. Extreme weather events are more frequent and international support to developing countries bearing the brunt of these disasters is very low. This is Target F, the 6th of the seven targets of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction adopted by UN Member States in and designed to achieve a substantial reduction in disaster losses by Only 27 of the 46 Least Developed Countries report having national disaster risk reduction strategies.
Press Releases. Source s. Share this. In the near future, each of these 2, non-native species might have the chance of being released through escape from culture ponds and aquarium dumping by home hobbyists into thousands of streams, rivers, reservoirs and natural lakes, leading to an irreversible process of biotic change Vitule et al.
The expansion of aquaculture for the purpose of animal protein production has instigated a series of changes in the laws whose purpose is simply the development of the activity without any concerns about its associated environmental risks. For instance, a law PL of has essentially been approved by the Brazilian Congress that aims to naturalize by decree non-native species with high invasion potential, such as the carps Aristichthys nobilis , Ctenopharyngodon idella , Cyprinus carpio , Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and tilapias Oreochromis spp.
Lima Junior et al. Another controversial action is the agreement between the previous Ministry of Fishing and Aquaculture and the Ministry of Environment to modify Resolution of from the National Council of the Environment. The new resolution simplifies the process of applying for and granting the environmental licenses required to conduct cage aquaculture in reservoirs. With the new modification, the licensing of these businesses will be possible in just three months.
In addition, it specifies weak inspection and control activities that do not mitigate the negative impacts caused by the establishment of a non-native fish originating from an aquaculture setting Lima Junior et al. The new resolution will guarantee opportunities for the development of massive problems related to the non-native species. Brazilian Environmental Legislation consists of many Normative Instructions e. The Brazilian Federal Government has allowed the importation of species of non-native ornamental freshwater fish and several crustacean species, while prohibiting the import of 16 non-native fish species and the crayfish Procambarus clarkii Brazil, a,b.
Even after the prohibition was put in place, because of inspection failures, eight prohibited fish species, including the predators Channa spp. This is not the only diversion project; other large-scale projects are currently being built or are in the planning stages. There is already a law PL of before the Brazilian Congress authorizing this proposal Pelicice et al. These water diversions will lead to the massive displacement and introduction of organisms, resulting in biotic homogenization in the Southeastern, Northeastern and North regions of Brazil.
This project is highly controversial because of the potential adverse environmental consequences, such as the introduction and spread of the golden mussel Limnoperna fortunei , an invader already introduced in the Pantanal region Boltovskoy et al. While some countries and regions are taking steps toward restoring aquatic ecosystems through the removal of reservoirs and the development of better controls over the introduction and establishment of non-native species Leadley et al.
This will undoubtedly lead to the impoverishment and loss of our native biological heritage and all of the ecosystem services it provides. All these changes will put at risk our overall objective of maintaining the unique Brazilian native aquatic biodiversity and its concomitant ecosystem services. Brazil has created the illusion that somehow its aquatic biodiversity is impregnable or that it is somehow peripheral to our contemporary world. The truth is we need it more than ever in a country of more than million people.
The authors declare no conflicts of interest. Perspectives in Ecology and Conservation. ISSN: Open Access Option. Previous article Next article. Issue 2. Pages July - December More article options. DOI: Dams, politics and drought threat: the march of folly in Brazilian freshwaters ecosystems.
Download PDF. Dilermando Pereira Lima Junior a , b ,. Corresponding author. This item has received. Under a Creative Commons license. Article information. Full Text. Introduction Brazil has assumed a position of global leadership in topics related to the environment, conservation, and the sustainable use of the biodiversity Mittermeier et al. Expansion of hydroelectric plants and their use in aquaculture Brazil is encouraging the construction of more reservoirs and the introduction of more non-native species into these reservoirs.
Conclusions While some countries and regions are taking steps toward restoring aquatic ecosystems through the removal of reservoirs and the development of better controls over the introduction and establishment of non-native species Leadley et al. Conflicts of interest The authors declare no conflicts of interest. Boltovskoy, et al. Invasions, 8 , pp. DOU Leadley, et al. Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity, ,. Lima Junior, et al. ABLimno, 40 , pp.
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