There are now many phone apps that depend on location services, such as navigational aids, and multiple commercial opportunities, such as localised advertising. In its early development, access to user location services was driven by European and American emergency services to help locate callers.
All smartphone operating systems offer free mapping and navigational services that require a data connection; some allow the pre-purchase and downloading of maps but the demand for this is diminishing as data connection reliant maps can generally be cached anyway. There are many navigation applications and new versions are constantly being introduced.
Consequently, almost any smartphone now qualifies as a personal navigation assistant. The use of mobile phones as navigational devices has outstripped the use of standalone GPS devices. Assisted GPS A-GPS uses a combination of satellite data and cell tower data to shorten the time to first fix , reduce the need to download a satellite almanac periodically and to help resolve a location when satellite signals are disturbed by the proximity of large buildings.
When out of range of a cell tower the location performance of a phone using A-GPS may be reduced. Phones with an A-GPS based hybrid positioning system can maintain a location fix when GPS signals are inadequate by cell tower triangulation and WiFi hotspot locations. Most smartphones download a satellite almanac when online to accelerate a GPS fix when out of cell tower range.
Some, older, Java -enabled phones lacking integrated GPS may still use external GPS receivers via serial or Bluetooth connections, but the need for this is now rare. By tethering to a laptop , some phones can provide localisation services to a laptop as well. Software companies have made available GPS navigation software programs for in-vehicle use on laptop computers.
Other GPS devices need to be connected to a computer in order to work. This computer can be a home computer , laptop , PDA , digital camera , or smartphones. Devices usually do not come with pre-installed GPS navigation software , thus, once purchased, the user must install or write their own software. As the user can choose which software to use, it can be better matched to their personal taste. The software may include maps only for a particular region, or the entire world, if software such as Google Maps are used.
Some hobbyists have also made some GPS devices and open-sourced the plans. Examples include the Elektor GPS units. Other chips and software implementations are also available. Aviators use GPS to increase their ability to keep safety up to par and also to maintain the efficiency of the flight.
A GPS navigation system can help aviators always know their position and its surroundings in all of its phases starting from its departure all the way to its landing point. Also, a GPS now allows an aviator from start to finish not to have to depend on ground infrastructures and allows them to be able to have a preferred route from its departure and landing point, but not only do they play a part in preferred routes they also help in airports that lack ground-based navigation and surveillance equipment.
With the use of a GPS for aviators, it saves time and money being used on fuel. More efficient air routes are continuing to expand every day. There are now some GPS units that allow aviators to get a clearer look in areas where the satellite is augmented to be able to have safe landings in bad visibility conditions.
There have now been two new signals made for GPS, the first being made to help in critical conditions in the sky and the other will make GPS more of a robust navigation service. Many aviator services have now made it a required service to use a GPS. Military applications include devices similar to consumer sport products for foot soldiers commanders and regular soldiers , small vehicles and ships, and devices similar to commercial aviation applications for aircraft and missiles.
Consumer devices were restricted by selective availability SA , which was scheduled to be phased out but was removed abruptly by President Clinton. DGPS can be within a few centimeters. A sequential GPS receiver tracks the necessary satellites by typically using one or two hardware channels.
The set will track one satellite at a time, time tag the measurements and combine them when all four satellite pseudoranges have been measured. These receivers are among the least expensive available, but they cannot operate under high dynamics and have the slowest time-to-first-fix TTFF performance. GPS maps and directions are occasionally imprecise. In August a young mother and her six-year-old son became stranded in Death Valley after following GPS directions that led her up an unpaved dead-end road.
When they were found five days later, her son had died from the effects of heat and dehydration. In a GPS sent a softball team bus into a 9 ft tunnel slicing off the top of the bus and the whole team was hospitalized. He says five to eight times a week people pull into his driveway because on a GPS it shows a street through his property. John and Starry Rhodes, a couple from Reno, Nevada were driving home from Oregon when they started to see there was a lot of snow in the area but decided to keep going because they were already 30 miles down the road.
But the GPS led them to a road in the Oregon forest that was not plowed and they were stuck for 3 days. A woman named Mary Davis was driving in an unfamiliar place when her GPS told her to make a right turn onto a train track while there was a train coming down.
Mary was lucky there was a local police officer who noticed the situation and urged her quickly to get out of the car as fast as she could. Mary was lucky enough to get out of the car leaving it for the train to hit and total it. The officer commented that there was a very good chance that they could have had a fatality on their hands. Other hazards involve an alley being listed as a street, a lane being identified as a road,  or rail tracks as a road.
Obsolete maps sometimes cause the unit to lead a user on an indirect, time-wasting route, because roads may change over time. Smartphone GPS information is usually updated automatically, and free of additional charge. Manufacturers of separate GPS devices also offer map update services for their merchandise, usually for a fee.
User privacy may be compromised if GPS receivers in handheld devices such as mobile phones upload user geo-location data through associated software installed on the device. User geo-location is currently the basis for navigational apps such as Google Maps, location-based advertising , which can promote nearby shops and may allow an advertising agency to track user movements and habits for future use. Regulatory bodies differ between countries regarding the treatment of geo-location data as privileged or not.
Privileged data cannot be stored, or otherwise used, without the user's consent. GPS vehicle tracking systems allow employers to track their employees' location raising questions regarding violation of employee privacy. There are cases where employers continued to collect geo-location data when an employee was off duty in private time.
Rental car services may use the same technique to geo-fence their customers to the areas they have paid for, charging additional fees for violations. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Device that can calculate its geographical position based on satellite information.
For navigation provided by a GPS, see Turn-by-turn navigation. See also: automotive navigation system and personal navigation assistant. Further information: Comparison of GPS software. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. June Learn how and when to remove this template message.
US Govt. Retrieved 21 March Library of Congress. Inside GNSS. Archived from the original on 6 February Retrieved 26 December Retrieved 3 April Retrieved 11 April Motor Trend. February Retrieved 18 January Retrieved 3 April — via YouTube. Retrieved 18 July BBC News. Retrieved 27 April Bibcode : BGeod.. ISSN S2CID National Museum of American History. Retrieved 15 May Retrieved 1 February Archived from the original on 2 April Archived from the original on 5 June Archived from the original on 8 January Elektor International Media BV.
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