If our results with HCV apply to other variable pathogens, the degree of residue conservation in mutant spectra is far less strict than conservation as inferred from sequence alignments in data banks [ , ]. Since the target of antiviral agents are mutant spectra rather than consensus sequences which embody limited biological information [ 12 ] , prospects of success of universal ligands or immunological stimulants such as vaccines are contingent upon minority variants remaining at low frequency due to their limited fitness.
When fitness-enhancing pathways are available, universal ligands are unlikely to impede selection of escape mutants. For this reason, we have proposed expansions of sequence information in data banks by including mutant spectra sequences in addition to consensus sequences [ ]. The proposal appears feasible, given the available computer power and big data methodology. In summary, the potential of many viral pathogens to vary genetically and antigenically remains an important challenge for disease control, but means are now available to try to limit the selection of treatment-resistant viral mutants.
Conceptualization, E. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript. Published online Sep Miguel Angel Martinez, Academic Editor. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Received Jul 30; Accepted Sep This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.
Abstract The error rate displayed during template copying to produce viral RNA progeny is a biologically relevant parameter of the replication complexes of viruses. Introduction: Mistakes as Hallmark of the Evolution of Life and of Present Day Viruses Studies of prebiotic nucleotide synthesis suggest that the origin of the high mutation rates exhibited by many present day viruses may be attributed to a limited template-copied fidelity that likely operated during the early stages of life development.
Open in a separate window. Figure 1. Limits to Mutation Rates: The Need of Repair The difference in copying fidelity between the replication complexes of viruses and cells the latter considered globally for replicative DNA polymerases suggests that mutation rates have been modulated historically by biological requirements. Figure 2. Summary, Conclusions, and Further Comments The range of mutation rates and frequencies exhibited by RNA viruses, with or without a functional proofreading-repair activity in their replication complexes, is compatible with the rapid development of mutant spectra that are an asset for adaptability.
Author Contributions Conceptualization, E. Conflicts of Interest The authors declare no conflict of interest. References 1. Eigen M. Stages of emerging life—five principles of early organization. Steps towards Life. Kauffman S. Self-Organization and Selection in Evolution. The Origins of Order. De Duve C. Life Evolving. Molecules, Mind and Meaning.
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A constant rate of spontaneous mutation in DNA-based microbes. Nishimura I. The Hypercycle. A Principle of Natural Self-Organization. Springer; Berlin, Germany: Swetina J. Self-replication with errors. A model for polynucleotide replication. Schuster P. Quasispecies on fitness landscapes. Spivak G. Nucleotide excision repair in humans. DNA Repair. Mahadevan J. Quantitating repair protein accumulation at DNA lesions: Past, present, and future.
Liu D. DNA mismatch repair and its many roles in eukaryotic cells. Reha-Krantz L. The proofreading pathway of bacteriophage T4 DNA polymerase. Goodman M. DNA polymerase fidelity: From genetics toward a biochemical understanding. Knopf C. Virus Genes. Gammon D. Czarnecki M. The vaccinia virus DNA polymerase and its processivity factor. Virus Res. Lawler J. Ishihama A. Jin Z. Meyer P. Unblocking of chain-terminated primer by HIV-1 reverse transcriptase through a nucleotide-dependent mechanism.
Kharytonchyk S. Nagy P. Kwon S. Denison M. Coronaviruses: An RNA proofreading machine regulates replication fidelity and diversity. A Laranjeira, Julie A. Blood ; 22 : Some genetic changes are important factors to initiate leukemia, but in many cases these changes are insufficient to achieve the complete leukemic phenotype, suggesting that collaborative oncogenic mutations may be present.
All somatic mutations detected were manually curated. Ongoing experiments are being conducted to determine whether these recurrent mutations can collaborate functionally with mutIL7R by co-transfection into immature murine thymocytes, transplanting into mice and determining incidence of leukemia. Sign In or Create an Account.
Sign In. Search Dropdown Menu. Skip Nav Destination Content Menu. Close Abstract. Article Navigation. Rodrigues, MSc , Gisele O. This Site. Google Scholar. Livia W. Campos , Livia W. Priscila P. Zenatti , Priscila P. Angelo A. A Laranjeira , Angelo A. Julie A. Hixon , Julie A. Elda P.
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Al and Darlene later prosper due to Lobo's appetite for destruction; he destroys the city, except for the diner, leaving hordes of construction workers with only one place to eat lunch. He also ends up destroying a diner Al gives to him as part of a birthday celebration.
The last revelation of Lobo and the diner appears to be in the pages of Lobo 1,, November , where his last adventure is depicted. By the time of the action, he is already morbidly obese and working as a carnival attraction, scaring tourists into leaving their money behind.
Then, a sexy client appears to offer him a last job: finding a legendary evildoer named Malo Perverso. At the prospect of a last well-paid job and a chance to score with the client, Lobo quickly agrees, and again invades the diner to use their Tesseract teleporter to reach his gear. It is revealed then the "client" is none other than Darlene, who wanted to see him back in his prime rather than see him sink even deeper into sloth.
There, he is attacked by Perverso himself, who then reveals himself to be Clayman, the team's shapeshifter, who admits he impersonated Perverso to get rid of Lobo. Clayman also squeals that the real Perverso went into a black hole. Lobo, still eager to find his bounty, goes into the black hole. Ironically, due to Lobo's interference in a planetary conflict in the same issue, Al later gets a package through the Tesseract for Lobo — which promptly blows the diner up, yet again.
At one point, Lobo has trouble with a clone of himself that had survived previous misadventures. A battle between the two makes it unclear which of them survived. Some fans conclude that the original Lobo was the victor, since later in the series, Lobo removes a miniature radio which he had surgically implanted in his head some time before the clone fight, and only organic matter can be cloned.
The character has participated in several money-making schemes, such as being a priest and being a pop-rock idol. Most of these schemes tend to end with the violent deaths of nearly everyone involved. He has many friends among the bounty hunter world, though many tend to die when they are around Lobo, either by his hand or at the hands of the enemies he faces. Lobo has both clashed and cooperated with Superman. He has also encountered Batman a couple of times, although one of these encounters was in the Elseworlds continuity.
He has both fought and teamed up with Guy Gardner more than once, helping him to destroy various alien threats to Earth. Lobo often visits Warriors, Guy's bar, where he enjoys free drinks. He fights Aquaman when a traveling space dolphin visiting Earth is killed by Japanese fishermen. He ceases fighting when he learns Aquaman is not only a friend to dolphins but was raised by them.
Lobo also has appeared with the Authority. In one such appearance, Jenny Quantum finds a comic book detailing Lobo's murder of Santa Claus ; she experiences a fit of rage and confusion. She breaks the barrier between her dimension and the dimension Lobo inhabits in the comic book, and Lobo finds himself in a fight with The Authority.
Lobo acts as an independent bounty hunter until tricked by Vril Dox into nominally joining his interstellar police force, L. However, he continues solo activity, which seems to often bring him to Earth and in conflict with its heroes. Or, as in one case, base indifference. After this, Lobo becomes a full-time bounty hunter again. In the year , a magical accident transforms Lobo into a teenager.
In this condition, he joins Young Justice and eventually accompanies them to Apokolips , where he is killed in combat. However, the aforementioned magical accident has restored his ability to grow clones from a single drop of blood, and millions of Lobos rush into battle against Apokoliptian soldiers, whom the Lobos quickly defeat. The Lobos then turn on each other, until only one is left; in the process, the surviving Lobo regrows to adulthood.
His time as a member of Young Justice becomes a distant memory. An additional weaker teenage Lobo with yellow eyes remained, however, having hidden from the fight; he rejoins Young Justice and chooses to rename himself Slobo "[It]'s Lobo". Eventually, this clone begins to degrade, becoming blind, and degenerating to the brink of death. Before he can die, however, Darkseid teleports him to the headquarters of Young Justice 1 Million in the rd Century, turning him into a statue, fully conscious and aware, in the process.
When Lobo later encounters Robin and Wonder Girl again as members of the Teen Titans , he demonstrates no recollections of them or their history together, demonstrating that he has indeed forgotten his time as their teammate. In the —07 miniseries 52 , Lobo reappears after an extended hiatus.
He encounters a group of heroes consisting of Adam Strange , Animal Man , and Starfire , who find themselves stranded in space after the events of the — " Infinite Crisis " storyline. To everyone's surprise, he does not kill them. Lobo professes to have found religion, becoming the spiritual leader of the whole of sector , which was left in shambles by a still-unknown assailant.
He is the current caretaker of the Emerald Eye of Ekron. After helping the lost heroes defeat Lady Styx , he brings the Emerald Eye to the triple-headed fish god, who agrees to release Lobo from his vow of non-violence in exchange. When told that the Emerald Eye is the only thing that can kill the fish god, Lobo blasts him with it.
Lobo appeared in "Deadly Serious", a two-part crossover miniseries with Batman in August , written and drawn by Sam Kieth. In addition, Lobo has fought the Teen Titans and Blue Beetle in their respective titles in order to stop a rocket for the Reach, in which he failed. In the Reign in Hell miniseries, it is revealed that Lobo's soul was still in Hell following a deal he made with Neron during the Underworld Unleashed storyline.
Lobo's suffering was enough to power Neron's whole castle. Lobo was freed from his prison in a battle between Etrigan and Blue Devil , and went on a rampage through Hell to seek revenge on Neron. In order to buy time to fully recover before battling Lobo, Etrigan stole Blue Devil's soul and informed him that he would have to fight Lobo to get it back. During Lobo's rampage he cut off Zatara 's head, forcing his daughter, Zatanna , to send him to the Abyss, the soul death.
In the " Brightest Day " storyline, Lobo appears on Earth to capture a bounty on Atrocitus 's head. It is revealed that the fight was staged by Atrocitus himself. As a payment, Lobo is given a Red Lantern ring. Still wearing his red ring on a chain around his neck, Lobo is recruited from a bar by Vril Dox , who requires his help battling his "father" Brainiac and the Pulsar Stargrave, a captured weapon.
Even losing his spacehog, Lobo saves the planet Colu , but with Brainac and Pulsar Stargrave escaping. Lobo became a senior member of Vril Dox's Legion based on the planet Rann. Lobo was the key to defeating Starro the Conqueror and his lieutenants, ensuring security for Rann, the Vega System and the galaxy.
Unknown to Lobo, the Psions had created clones of Lobo attempting to bring back the Czarnian race, which could make them unstoppable, but the series ended before this was played out. A reimagined version of Lobo debuted in Deathstroke 9, written by Rob Liefeld. This Lobo is a Czarnian slaver who killed the rest of his race except for his beloved Princess Sheba.
Cultured and well-educated, although ruthless, this Lobo is an interstellar mercenary and bounty hunter, with a leaner physique akin to the character's earlier appearances. This new version sets course for Earth after discovering his counterpart, a Czarnian imposter, had been there.
According to this version's backstory, Lobo was originally the bodyguard to the Czarnian royal family, who utilized a Eucharist-like ritual involving the planet's "life blood", pools similar to the Lazarus Pits. Drinking or bathing in these pools granted participants regenerative abilities, connecting them and the Emperor himself to the entire planet. However, an unknown party contaminated the "life blood", causing the Czarnian Emperor and any citizenry that had participated in the ritual to go insane, which in turn forced Lobo to commit planetary euthanasia.
A new series featuring this version of Lobo debuted in October   and concluded with its December issue. Lobo debuts in Justice League vs. Suicide Squad as one of the villains freed by Maxwell Lord, evidently restored to his Pre- New 52 persona. He is a member of Amanda Waller's first Suicide Squad. Batman eventually implants a bomb into Lobo's brain and detonates it, blowing up Lobo's head.
After Lobo regenerates it, he discovers Batman did so to free him from Lord's control, and later accepts Batman's offer to join a new incarnation of the Justice League to repay the favour. Guy Gardner almost frees him, before Hal Jordan grabs the bottle and tells him it is better to "leave him on the shelf". In all comic books, Lobo is portrayed as a ruthless bounty hunter. He only has one rule: once he takes a contract, he finishes it no matter what, even if it means risking injury.
If he has a counter-contract for even more money, then he will fulfill the new one. Lobo possesses extraordinary strength of undefined limits. His strength, much like his other powers, varies greatly depending upon different artistic interpretations by various comic book writers. In some instances, he is depicted as being barely stronger than a human while, in others, he demonstrates physical strength on a similar level to Superman.
He has shown to be a match in strength for Etrigan the Demon each time that they have met. Lobo also possesses superhuman durability, which varies greatly too. Lobo is depicted, in some situations, as being injured by conventional bullets while, in other situations, he has the physical resiliency to stand toe to toe with Superman, survive unprotected in deep space, and withstand high level destructive weaponry and powerful explosive blasts without sustaining injury.
He has displayed particular susceptibility to gaseous chemicals. In one instance, Lobo was declared immortal; after he died and went to Hell, he proved too much for the demons, and when he was then sent to Heaven, he wreaked so much havoc that he was permanently banished from the afterlife. If Lobo sustains injury, his accelerated healing factor enables him to regenerate damaged or destroyed tissue with superhuman speed and efficiency, and little apparent pain. Lobo also is functionally immortal.
He is immune to the effects of aging and disease. As such, even though he can sustain sufficient injury to be out of commission for quite some time, he will apparently heal from any injury, given sufficient time. For instance, Lobo can regenerate out of a pool of his own blood, apparently recycling the cells. At one time, Lobo could grow a copy of himself, possessing all of his skills and powers, out of every drop of his blood that was spilled. This power was removed by Vril Dox during Lobo's time with L.
His blood reformed into thousands of Lobo clones who waged war on the planet and then proceeded to murder each other until only one Lobo the current one was left. One of his other clones, Slobo, survived, but later began to fall apart until being dealt with by Darkseid.
In 52 , he again regenerated from a pool of blood, but no clones were created, so he no longer appears to retain this ability. Lobo possesses an amazingly developed sense of smell, which allows him to track objects between solar systems, as well as a separate tracking ability enabling him to track an individual across galactic distances. He is a formidable combatant with expertise in multiple forms of armed and unarmed combat.
His favorite weapon is a large titanium alloy chain with a large gutting hook connected at the end, often referred to as "the garrote", that he keeps wrapped around his right wrist. At times, he also uses high-grade explosives and advanced firearms. Despite his violent and loutish nature, Lobo seems to have a genius-level intellect in matters of destruction and violence.
He can create complex virulent agents and the corresponding antidotes. In one version of his backstory, he released such a plague on Czarnia as a school science project. This resulted in the deaths of the entire population in the span of one week, he then proceeded to give himself an "A". Lobo has an extraordinary speed, rivalled with Flash.
His vehicle, some sort of space-faring motorcycle the "Space Hog" , often accompanies him. It is of his own design and, despite its size, it is capable of extended and speedy travel throughout space. Further, it protects those in its immediate vicinity from the hazards of space and somehow permits the ability to breathe and speak. He was also able to scavenge parts from a destroyed time hopper and attach them to his own bike, producing a working time machine. Lobo is fluent in many alien languages according to Lobo, 17,  and extremely knowledgeable in the locations and cultures of worlds without external references.
Lobo is known for his awkward behavior and love for cigars. He once was known to destroy an entire planet for not finding the cigar of his liking. It is not fully known the extent to which his powers are common for his race or unique to him. In the miniseries The Last Czarnian and elsewhere, it is stated that the cloning and healing abilities are traits possessed by all Czarnians, as is the apparent ability to survive in the vacuum of space.
Czarnia no longer exists in the DC Universe. Contrary to the personality of their "last son", Czarnians were a peaceful race. Czarnia was in a golden age and had become a crime-free utopia that rivaled Krypton. They had many social institutions just like Earth, such as day care, music concerts and mental asylums. Czarnians, the former inhabitants of Czarnia, are described as a very peaceful society, unused to social unrest. They were wiped out after Lobo bio-engineers a small flying scorpion-like creature with a lethal sting and unleashes it on Czarnia.
Death from the stings is very slow. Lobo believes he was the only remaining Czarnian, but in Simon Bisley and Keith Giffen 's miniseries entitled Lobo: The Last Czarnian , he discovers that this was not quite the case. One Czarnian was off-world when he unleashed his plague, and by coincidence it happened to be his fourth grade teacher, Miss Tribb.
Lobo happens to be under contract to deliver Miss Tribb to his employer Vril Dox , a very sensitive situation. Lobo takes his promises very seriously; he keeps his reputation by keeping his word. He keeps her alive, though at one point he removes her legs to keep her from wandering off. When he fulfills his contract by bringing her to Vril Dox, he then immediately kills her by snapping her neck.
The story of Czarnia is very well known across the universe, due to the publication of a Lobo biography. This book is featured in Lobo 0 October , discussed by several crooks who are being pursued by Lobo himself. The planet later became the site of an assassination attempt on Lobo, which is detailed in the mini-series "Lobo Infanticide". Hundreds of his children, results of his womanizing, form a battalion to ambush him.
Lobo, thinking he is taking parts in war games, patrols through various Czarnian canyons, even encountering his old house, which is still somewhat standing. Most of his children are slain in a battle with the 'Brutish' empire, a race of aliens who had decided to take the empty planet for their own. Lobo kills the invading force, then spends much time battling the last of his kids. These fights take place in a highly arid region, with little plant life. Eventually he is the sole survivor.
The planet suffers much damage in the battles. In September , Warner Bros. See also:. On several occasions, people have tried to mimic or reproduce mutants abilities, or even create their own mutants from human or other species' genetic materials bonded with harvested X-Genes to give them powers. There is a vast variety of Artificial Mutants ,  " Pseudo-Mutants ,    Triploids ,  "New Mutants" ,  "artificially created mutants",    "advanced humans",  "fakes",  and "Freaks".
Forge 's ' "New Mutants". Artificial mutants Alice and Gene Hayes. Many classification have been made about the mutants, based on Greek-numbered or Arabic-numbered scales, mostly unexplained. For example, Omega Level Mutants. Doop without being a confirmed mutant and Wolverine were both considered as Code-X by Xavier and Freeman, caused by misinterpretation of "symptoms" induced by the Pink Lady illusions.
Their condition was referred as Code-X Fever , and they were finally cleared off. The Genoshan Mutates are mutants or more exactly, for some of them, humans with latent mutant potential  transformed by the Genoshan government and the Genegineer David Moreau as slaves for different purpose, as energy-creators or guards for example. Most depowered mutants are a result of M-Day. Some depowered mutants results other interventions such as the Hope Serum , power neutralizing guns, or losing powers due to other mutants.
Some of these effects are temporary, but others are permanent. Some depowered mutants still consider themselves cultural mutants. Latent Mutants ,  or " mutant pre-potentials ",  are mutants or individuals claiming to be mutants who carry the X-Gene in its inactive form and thus do not manifest any powers,  or those powers are emerging and have not yet stabilized. In the same way, one of the X-Ceptionals claimed as an explanation for his alleged unpowered mutant state that his mutant gene was recessive.
Charles Xavier theorized that some mutants, the Neo-Mutants , had latent powers who activated only in presence of other X-Genes. He was eventually able, using Cerebro , to detect one: Bernard the Poet. On an Earth , the mutants possess X-Genes on the 13th chromosome instead of on the 23rd. Those mutants or " 13s "  weren't affected by the M-Day, and have superpowers resulting from their mutations.
It was stated that it was possible that the chromosome 13th carrying the X-Gene had been genetically created for the invading scouts of their reality to stay hide from device as Cerebra , but this hypothesis wasn't used since the extradimensional origin of those mutants was confirmed. Some of the mutants from Earth possess the S-Factor , granting to them, in addition of mutant powers, an amazing raise in the sales of any comic-book starring or guest-starring them and generating great sales to the X-Persons comics.
The villains are concerned as well by this effect, but cannot possess their own series nor gain money from royalties. The S-Factor is also present in Oarlock , a being close to the mutant Technarch Warlock , although his alien or human origin hasn't been confirmed. Marvel Database Explore. Comics Movies TV Games. Connect With Us Discord Twitter. Achievements Leaderboard List of Badges. Explore Wikis Community Central. Register Don't have an account? Mutant Classification. View source.
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