Upon order execution our technology automatically compares prices and volumes across all available sources of liquidity at that moment and executes the order at the best price available. All orders on SPB Exchange are executed through the central counterparty.
HFT trading. High-frequency traders can reach their potential by acting as market makers at SPB Exchange. We look toward mutually beneficial cooperation allowing algorithmic traders to act as liquidity providers. The market infrastructure is furnished with everything required for successful HFT trading. Liquidity time frames during the day. Longest trading hours. Longest trading hours, see interactive timezone map. We offer new liquidity opportunities in US equities during non-standard trading hours.
No matter where your clients are located, in Hong Kong or in Moscow, they will be able to get reliable access to global equities around the world, around the clock. We plan to extend trading hours and add trading days in the future. Our tariff policy implies providing flexible conditions to all participants: buy-sides and brokers. Information disclosure on the Exchange's website makes markets more transparent for investors.
We provide a suite of information products and services based on data and content generated from a variety of public and non-public sources, including trading activity on our platform, our subsidiary BestStocks. There are various options and opportunities for: residents and non-residents; individuals and legal entities.
As a unique provider of valuable financial content, SPB Exchange provides comprehensive access to a broad range of data. Historical data product supports post-trade analysis and back testing strategies with a tick-by-tick record. We provide a wide range of information services such as data transmission services, collocation, network connections and Internet access services. The largest Russian brokers provide access to the exchange for private, legal and institutional investors.
About us. SPB Exchange and its subsidiaries provide a full cycle of support for the exchange infrastructure and market participants. The subsidiaries include: clearing bank providing a range of services for professional market participants; clearing house acting as a central counterparty; OTC market; IT development center; as well as a number of information and analytical services.
August the launch of smart routing technology. Access to global liquidity has made it possible significantly expand the list of traded securities. Brokers as Share- holders. SPB Exchange transformed its governance structure, where a number of key market participants have become also the shareholders.
SPB Exchange continued its expansion by broadening the list of traded securities, adding European and US securities in particular. Sustainability Priorities. The Paris Climate Agreement, which Russia signed in , laid the ideological and legal foundation for a new global redistribution of capital flows in favor of markets that meet the needs of our time, but without prejudice to future generations.
SPB Exchange views ESG as a factor that can radically change the outlook and strategies of many companies in Russia and the rest of the world. ESG in Russia is still at an early stage, but support from the Bank of Russia has enabled market participants to form their own attitudes towards sustainable development goals and ESG financial products.
SPB Exchange is committed to enable businesses of various sizes and markets to participate in determining the future of the planet through the creation of the necessary infrastructure and green financial instruments. The implementation of social sustainability and governance components are of no less importance.
This includes, among other things, our commitment to gender equality, composition of top management, independence of board members and protection of minority shareholder rights. Sustainable platforms for SMEs. We recognize the importance of SMEs for the Russian economy, for its day-to-day operations and its growth potential.
Yet, SMEs face various hurdles on their path. The most significant and specific of these challenges is the financial gap. Our platform is open to SMEs from all over Russia. The Voshod Segment is a platform designed to provide financing to issuers of securities from the Far East — the most remote region of Russia, and the most distant from the formal financial markets and large financial institutions.
The new body aims to help companies in the IT sector, which is currently underrepresented in the public market, take advantage of the market dynamics to raise funds for development through public instruments. ESG-related Products.
SPB Exchange recognizes the importance of addressing the issue of climate change. SPB Exchange is committed to fully compliment the actions of policymakers by supporting the Net Zero initiative and the investors willing to participate in the financial aspect of the climate change challenge.
SPB Exchange is actively engaged in the development and introduction of green finance products on the Russian market. As part of our most recent initiative to support global efforts to address the climate change challenge, SPB Exchange signed an agreement on July 4, with Sovcombank — a large Russian private bank included in the list of 12 systemically important Russian banks — to form a segment of green and social bonds on SPB Exchange, to organize trading of low-carbon energy certificates and trading of quotas for greenhouse gas emissions, as well as of certificates confirming the neutralization of greenhouse gas emissions.
Roman Goryunov. Actively involved in regulation of the Russian financial market. Eugene Serdyukov. Petersburg Stock Exchange. He will continue to serve on the board of SPB Exchange. Pavel Krupnov. Pavel Krupnov has served as the Head of Corporate Finance since Contact us. Primary industries in Moscow include the chemical , metallurgy , food , textile , furniture , energy production , software development and machinery industries. The Mil Moscow Helicopter Plant is one of the world's leading producers of military and civil helicopters.
NPO Energomash , producing the rocket engines for Russian and American space programs, as well as Lavochkin design bureau, which built fighter planes during WWII, but switched to space probes since the Space Race , are in nearby Khimki , an independent city in Moscow Oblast that have largely been enclosed by Moscow from its sides. The Poljot Moscow watch factory produces military, professional and sport watches well known in Russia and abroad.
Yuri Gagarin in his trip into space used "Shturmanskie" produced by this factory. The Electrozavod factory was the first transformer factory in Russia. The Kristall distillery  is the oldest distillery in Russia producing vodka types, including " Stolichnaya " while wines are produced at Moscow wine plants, including the Moscow Interrepublican Vinery. There are other industries located just outside the city of Moscow, as well as microelectronic industries in Zelenograd, including Ruselectronics companies.
Gazprom, the largest extractor of natural gas in the world and the largest Russian company , has head offices also in Moscow, as well as other oil, gas, and electricity companies. During Soviet times, apartments were lent to people by the government according to the square meters-per-person norm some groups, including people's artists, heroes, and prominent scientists had bonuses according to their honors. Private ownership of apartments was limited until the s when people were permitted to secure property rights to their inhabited places.
Since the Soviet era, estate owners have had to pay the service charge for their residences, a fixed amount based on persons per living area. The price of real estate in Moscow continues to rise. A typical one-bedroom apartment is about thirty square metres square feet , a typical two-bedroom apartment is forty-five square metres square feet , and a typical three-bedroom apartment is seventy square metres square feet. Many cannot move out of their apartments, especially if a family lives in a two-room apartment originally granted by the state during the Soviet era.
Some city residents have attempted to cope with the cost of living by renting their apartments while staying in dachas country houses outside the city. In , Mercer Human Resources Consulting named Moscow the world's most expensive city for expatriate employees , ahead of perennial winner Tokyo, due to the stable Russian ruble as well as increasing housing prices within the city.
However, Tokyo has overtaken Moscow as the most expensive city in the world, placing Moscow at third behind Osaka in second place. In , Moscow ranked top on the list of most expensive cities for the third year in a row. In , according to Forbes , Moscow was ranked the 9th most expensive city in the world.
Forbes ranked Moscow the 2nd most expensive city the year prior. In the Economist Intelligence Unit's Worldwide Cost of Living survey put Moscow to nd place in the biannual ranking of most expensive cities. The heating of buildings in Moscow, like in other cities in Russia is done using central heating system.
Before , state unitary enterprises were responsible to produce and supply heat to the clients by the operation of heating stations and heating distribution system of Mosgorteplo, Mosteploenergo, and Teploremontnaladka which gave service to the heating substations in the north-eastern part of the city. Clients were divided between the various enterprises based on their geographical location.
A major reform launched in consolidated the various companies under the umbrella of MIPC which became the municipal heat supplier. Its subsidiaries were the newly transformed Joint-stock companies. The city's main source of heating is the power station of Mosenergo which was reformed in , when around ten subsidiaries were separated from it. In the Government of Moscow bought controlling stakes in the company. In its 10 years of operation, more than 1. There are 1, high schools in Moscow, as well as 91 colleges.
Additionally, approximately 10, high school students take courses at the university, while over two thousand researchers work. The Moscow State University library contains over nine million books, making it one of the largest libraries in all of Russia.
Its acclaim throughout the international academic community has meant that over 11, international students have graduated from the university, with many coming to Moscow to become fluent in the Russian language. The I. It was founded in as the faculty of the Moscow State University. It is one of the largest medical universities in Russia and Europe. More than students are enrolled in academic departments. It offers courses for post-graduate studies. It is fully accredited and recognized by Russia's Ministry of Education and Science and is currently under the authority of the Ministry of Health and Social Development.
Named after Russian surgeon and pedagogue N. Pirogov , it is one of the largest medical institutions and the first university in Russia to allow women to acquire degrees. Moscow is one of the financial centers of the Russian Federation and CIS countries and is known for its business schools. They offer undergraduate degrees in management, finance, accounting, marketing, real estate, and economic theory, as well as Masters programs and MBAs.
Most of them have branches in other regions of Russia and countries around the world. Bauman Moscow State Technical University , founded in , is located in the center of Moscow and provides 18, undergraduate and 1, postgraduate students with an education in science and engineering, offering technical degrees.
Moscow State Institute of International Relations , founded in , remains Russia's best- known school of international relations and diplomacy, with six schools focused on international relations. Approximately 4, students make up the university's student body and over , Russian and foreign-language books—of which 20, are considered rare—can be found in the library of the Moscow State Institute of International Relations. Although Moscow has a number of famous Soviet-era higher educational institutions, most of which are more oriented towards engineering or the fundamental sciences, in recent years Moscow has seen a growth in the number of commercial and private institutions that offer classes in business and management.
Many state institutions have expanded their education scope and introduced new courses or departments. Institutions in Moscow, as well as the rest of post-Soviet Russia, have begun to offer new international certificates and postgraduate degrees, including the Master of Business Administration. Student exchange programs with numerous countries, specially with the rest of Europe, have also become widespread in Moscow's universities, while schools within the Russian capital also offer seminars, lectures, and courses for corporate employees and businessmen.
Moscow is one of the largest science centers in Russia. The headquarters of the Russian Academy of Sciences are located in Moscow as well as research and applied science institutions. The Kurchatov Institute , Russia's leading research and development institution in the fields of nuclear energy, where the first nuclear reactor in Europe was built, the Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics , Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics , Kapitza Institute for Physical Problems and Steklov Institute of Mathematics are all situated in Moscow.
There are libraries in the city, including for children. The library is home to over km mi of shelves and 42 million items, including over 17 million books and serial volumes, 13 million journals, , music scores and sound records, and , maps, making it the largest library in Russia and one of the largest in the world. The State Public Historical Library, founded in , is the largest library specialising in Russian history. Its collection contains four million items in languages including 47 languages of the former USSR , mostly on Russian and world history, heraldry , numismatics , and the history of science.
In regard to primary and secondary education, in , Clifford J. Levy of The New York Times wrote, "Moscow has some strong public schools, but the system as a whole is dispiriting, in part because it is being corroded by the corruption that is a post-Soviet scourge. Parents often pay bribes to get their children admitted to better public schools. There are additional payoffs for good grades. The Moscow Metro system is famous for its art, murals , mosaics , and ornate chandeliers.
It started operation in and immediately became the centrepiece of the transportation system. More than that it was a Stalinist device to awe and reward the populace, and give them an appreciation of Soviet realist art. It became the prototype for future Soviet large-scale technologies. Lazar Kaganovich was in charge; he designed the subway so that citizens would absorb the values and ethos of Stalinist civilisation as they rode.
The artwork of the 13 original stations became nationally and internationally famous. For example, the Sverdlov Square subway station featured porcelain bas-reliefs depicting the daily life of the Soviet peoples, and the bas-reliefs at the Dynamo Stadium sports complex glorified sports and the physical prowess of the powerful new "Homo Sovieticus" Soviet man.
The metro was touted as the symbol of the new social order—a sort of Communist cathedral of engineering modernity. The Britons called for tunneling instead of the "cut-and-cover" technique, the use of escalators instead of lifts, and designed the routes and the rolling stock. Today, the Moscow Metro comprises twelve lines, mostly underground with a total of stations.
The Metro is one of the deepest subway systems in the world; for instance, the Park Pobedy station, completed in , at 84 metres ft underground, has the longest escalators in Europe. The Moscow Metro is the busiest metro system in Europe, as well as one of the world's busiest metro systems, serving about ten million passengers daily ,, people every month. In , the authorities launched a new circle metro railway that contributed to solving transportation issues, namely daily congestion at Koltsevaya Line.
Due to the treatment of Metro stations as possible canvas for art, characterized by the fact that workers of Moscow would get to see them every day, many Stalin-era metro stations were built in different "custom" designs where each station's design would be, initially, a massive installation on a certain theme. For example, Elektrozavodskaya station was themed solely after nearby lightbulb factory and ceramic ribbed lightbulb sockets ;  the tradition of "Grand Designs" and, basically, decorating metro stations as single-themed installations, was restored in late Moscow's metro is one of the world's busiest, handling 2.
In the Russian capital, there are over The Moscow Metro operates a short monorail line line The line opened in It accepts overgound interchanges, no additional fare is needed if a ride was spent at Moscow Metro within previous 90 minutes.
As Metro stations outside the city center are far apart in comparison to other cities, up to 4 kilometres 2. Every major street in the city is served by at least one bus route. Many of these routes are doubled by a trolleybus route and have trolley wires over them. With the total line length of almost kilometres miles of a single wire, 8 depots, routes, and vehicles, the Moscow trolleybus system was the largest in the world.
But municipal authority, headed by Sergey Sobyanin, began to destroy the trolleybus system in Moscow in due the planned replacement of trolleybuses by electric buses. In Moscow trolleybus system has only 4 depots and dozens of kilometers of unused wires.
Almost all trolleybus wires inside Garden Ring Sadovoe Koltso were cut in — due to the reconstruction of central streets "Moya Ulitsa". Opened on November 15, , it is also the world's 6th oldest operating trolleybus system. In the vehicle companies Kamaz and GAZ have won the Mosgortrans tender for delivering electric buses and 62 ultra-fast charging stations to the city transport system. The manufacturers will be responsible for the quality and reliable operation of the buses and charging stations for the next 15 years.
The city will be procuring only electric buses as of , replacing the diesel bus fleet gradually. According to expectations, Moscow will become the leader amongst the European cities in terms of electric and gas fuel share in public transport by All bus stations and terminals of Moscow are now connected to free Wi-Fi. As much as 48 hot spots were installed there. On November 26, , the mayor of Moscow Sergey Sobyanin took part in the ceremony to open the cable car above the Moskva River.
The journey from the well-known viewpoint on Vorobyovy Gory to Luzhniki Stadium will last for five minutes instead of 20 minutes that one would have to spend on the same journey by car. The cable car will work every day from 11 a. The cable car is meters 2, ft long. It was built to transport 1, passengers per hour in all weathers. There are 35 closed capsules designed by Porsche Design Studio to transport passengers.
The booths are equipped with media screens, LED lights, hooks for bikes, skis, and snowboards. Passengers will also be able to use audio guides in English, German, Chinese and Russian. Moscow has an extensive tram system, which first opened in Trams still remain important in some districts as feeders to Metro stations.
The trams also provide important cross-links between metro lines, for example between Universitet station of Sokolnicheskaya Line 1 red line and Profsoyuznaya station of Kaluzhsko-Rizhskaya Line 6 orange line or between Voykovskaya and Strogino. Some routes used to connect downtown with sleep districts, like route 3.
In addition, tram advocates have suggested that the new rapid transit services metro to City, Butovo light metro, Monorail would be more effective as at-grade tram lines and that the problems with trams are only due to poor management and operation, not the technical properties of trams. New tram models have been developed for the Moscow network despite the lack of expansion.
Commercial taxi services and route taxis are in widespread use. In the mids, service platforms such as Yandex. Russian tech firm Yandex is testing self-driving taxis in Moscow. Yandex's fleet of around driverless cars has travelled more than 14 million kilometres. Robotaxis will available through the company's Yandex. Go application in Yasenevo district. Several train stations serve the city. Moscow's ten rail terminals or vokzals are:. The terminals are located close to the city center, along with the metro ringline 5 or close to it, and connect to a metro line to the centre of town.
Each station handles trains from different parts of Europe and Asia. As train tickets are cheap, they are the preferred mode of travel for Russians, especially when departing to Saint Petersburg, Russia's second-largest city. Moscow is the western terminus of the Trans-Siberian Railway , which traverses nearly 9, kilometres 5, mi of Russian territory to Vladivostok on the Pacific coast.
Suburbs and satellite cities are connected by commuter elektrichka electric rail network. Elektrichkas depart from each of these terminals to the nearby up to km or 87 mi large railway stations. During the s, the Little Ring of the Moscow Railway was converted to be used for frequent passenger service; it is fully integrated with Moscow Metro; the passenger service started on September 10, A connecting railway line on the North side of the town connects Belorussky terminal with other railway lines.
This is used by some suburban trains. The Moskovskaya Okruzhnaya Zheleznaya Doroga formed a ring around the now-downtown Moscow since , but only served as a non-electrified, fueled locomotive-only railway prior to reconstruction into MCC in 's. The Moscow Central Circle is a kilometre-long 34 mi urban-metro railway orbital line that encircles historical Moscow.
It was built alongside Little Ring of the Moscow Railway , taking some of its tracks into itself as well. MOZD is integrated as "Line 14 of Moscow Metro", and, while using railway-sized trains, can be perceived as "S-train-design circle line".
There is one zero-fee interchange for any ticket used on Moscow Metro station less than 90 minutes before entering an MCC station and vice versa: a passenger of MCC gets 1 free interchange to Moscow Metro within 90 minutes after entering MCC station. Another system, which forms "genuine S-Bahn " as in "suburbia-city-suburbia"-designed railway, is the Moscow Central Diameters , a pass-through railways system, created by constructing bypasses from "vokzals" final stations e.
Out of 5 projected lines, the first 2 lines were completed and launched on e. November 21, There are over 2. Recent years have seen growth in the number of cars, which have caused traffic jams and lack of parking space to become major problems. Several other roadway systems form concentric circles around the city.
Domodedovo International Airport is the leading airport in Russia in terms of passenger throughput and is the primary gateway to long-haul domestic and CIS destinations and its international traffic rivals Sheremetyevo. It is a hub for S7 airlines , and most of OneWorld and Star Alliance members use Domodedovo as their international hub. Ostafyevo International Airport caters primarily to business aviation. Moscow's airports vary in distances from the MKAD beltway: Domodedovo is the farthest at 22 km 14 mi ; Vnukovo is 11 km 7 mi ; Sheremetyevo is 10 km 6 mi ; and Ostafievo, the nearest, is about 8 kilometres 5.
There are a number of smaller airports close to Moscow 19 in Moscow Oblast such as Myachkovo Airport , that are intended for private aircraft, helicopters and charters. Moscow has two passenger terminals, South River Terminal and North River Terminal or Rechnoy vokzal , on the river and regular ship routes and cruises along the Moskva and Oka rivers, which are used mostly for entertainment.
The North River Terminal , built in , is the main hub for long-range river routes. There are three freight ports serving Moscow. Moscow has different vehicle sharing options that are sponsored by the local government. There are several car sharing companies which are in charge of providing cars to the population.
To drive the automobiles, the user has to book them through the app of the owning company. In the mayor Sergey Sobyanin said Moscow's car sharing system has become the biggest in Europe in terms of vehicle fleet. In the end of the same year Moscow carsharing became the second in the world in therms of fleet with In , the Moscow government began planning a projected new part of central Moscow, the Moscow International Business Center , with the goal of creating a zone, the first in Russia, and in all of Eastern Europe,  that will combine business activity, living space and entertainment.
The whole project takes up to one square kilometre acres. The area is the only spot in downtown Moscow that can accommodate a project of this magnitude. Today, most of the buildings there are old factories and industrial complexes. The Federation Tower , completed in , is the second-tallest building in Europe. It is planned to include a water park and other recreational facilities; business, office, entertainment, and residential buildings, a transport network and a new site for the Moscow government.
The construction of four new metro stations in the territory has been completed, two of which have opened and two others are reserved for future metro lines crossing MIBC, some additional stations were planned. Three metro stations were initially planned for the Filyovskaya Line.
The station Delovoi Tsentr opened in and was later renamed Vystavochnaya in The branch extended to the Mezhdunarodnaya station in , and all work on the third station, Dorogomilovskaya between Kiyevskaya and Delovoi Tsentr , has been postponed. There are plans to extend the branch as far as the Savyolovskaya station, on the Serpukhovsko-Timiryazevskaya Line. Line 4 of Moscow Metro had the longest time intervals between train arrivals approximately 8 minutes for Mezhdunarodnaya and Vystavochnaya branch of line 4 throughout the s.
However, Vystavochnaya has been expanded with Line 8A platforms segment of future Line 11 , and Mezhdunarodnaya has been upgraded with line 14 platform. The cellphone service provider MTS announced on March 5, , that they would begin the country's first pilot 5G network in Moscow.
Moscow is home to nearly all of Russia's nationwide television networks , radio stations , newspapers, and magazines. English-language media include The Moscow Times and Moscow News , which are, respectively, the largest  and oldest English-language weekly newspapers in all of Russia. Kommersant and Vedomosti are among the country's leading and oldest Russian-language business newspapers.
Other media in Moscow include the Echo of Moscow , the first Soviet and Russian private news radio and information agency, and NTV , one of the first privately owned Russian television stations. The total number of radio stations in Moscow in the FM band is near Alexander Pushkin , the founder of modern Russian literature was born in Moscow in Fyodor Dostoyevsky was born in Moscow in Alexander Suvorov was born in Moscow in Peter the Great was born in Moscow in From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Capital and largest city of the Russian Federation. For the guided missile cruiser, see Russian cruiser Moskva. For other uses, see Moscow disambiguation and Moskva disambiguation. Place in Central, Russia. Capital city Federal city. Coat of arms. Main articles: History of Moscow and Timeline of Moscow. Further information: Kievan Rus' and Vladimir-Suzdal. Main article: Grand Duchy of Moscow. Further information: Tsardom of Russia. Main article: Moscow Governorate. Further information: Russian Empire.
A panoramic view of Moscow from the Spasskaya Tower in — Main article: Moscow Time. Main article: Climate of Moscow. See also: Ethnic groups in Moscow. Religion in Moscow   Russian Orthodoxy. See also: List of tallest buildings in Moscow. See also: List of Moscow tourist attractions. The Bolshoi Theatre. See also: Football in Moscow. See also: List of shopping malls in Moscow.
Main article: Administrative divisions of Moscow. See also: Economy of Russia. See also: Hotels in Moscow. Further information: Education in Russia. Main article: Transportation in Moscow. Main article: Moscow Metro. Main article: Moscow Monorail. Main article: Electric buses in Moscow.
Main article: Moskva River cable car. Main article: Trams in Moscow. See also: Carsharing in Moscow. See also: Media of Russia. Further information: List of newspapers in Russia. See also: Television in Russia. Main article: List of people from Moscow. Further information: Category:People from Moscow. See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Russia. President of the Russian Federation.
Effective as of May 13, Gosstandart of the Russian Federation. Occidental College. Archived from the original on May 17, Retrieved July 3, Moscow City Duma. Moscow City Government. June 28, Archived from the original on August 23, Retrieved September 29, The supreme and exclusive legislative representative body of the state power in Moscow is the Moscow City Duma. Government of Moscow. Retrieved March 18, Federal State Statistics Service.
Retrieved November 1, Retrieved January 23, June 3, Retrieved January 19, Longman Pronunciation Dictionary 3rd ed. ISBN Cambridge English Pronouncing Dictionary 18th ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. City Population. August 8, Retrieved September 1, Retrieved July 22, Strelka Mag. Archived from the original on April 17, Retrieved May 23, September 11, Retrieved May 27, Retrieved September 21, JSTOR Retrieved August 9, The New Indian Express.
Retrieved March 20, Bridge To Moscow. In Trubachyov, O. Moscow: Progress. Retrieved December 10, Archived from the original on March 10, Retrieved March 28, April 5, Retrieved November 12, Archived from the original on May 24, BBC News Russian. April 11, The Orthodox Shrines of Moscow. Publishing House of the Moscow Patriarchate. Fennell, Ivan the Great of Moscow p. Soloviev, and John J. Windhausen, eds. History of Russia. John F. Richards University of California Press.
John T. Alexander Oxford University Press US. Anderson, Peter the Great p. Critical Reviews in Microbiology. CiteSeerX PMID S2CID Archived from the original PDF on November 23, Retrieved March 22, Albert Seaton, Michael Youens Presidential Library. Retrieved March 12, The Guardian — via www. July 1, Archived from the original on November 13, Retrieved July 9, Archived from the original on July 20, Archived from the original on August 25, Retrieved April 29, Retrieved March 31, The air temperature and rainfall.
June ] in Russian. Retrieved July 27, Retrieved December 15, Retrieved November 15, The New York Times. ISSN Retrieved February 22, BBC News. Retrieved October 29, Retrieved January 12, Weather Atlas. Retrieved July 4, Retrieved April 3, Archived from the original on November 17, Retrieved January 5, December 19, Archived from the original on December 25, Retrieved February 10, Retrieved December 22, Archived from the original on October 31, Retrieved October 28, November 17, Retrieved April 21, Der Spiegel.
The Independent. Retrieved February 12, The architecture and planning of classical Moscow: a cultural history. American Philosophical Society. Melnikov Institute. Archived from the original on May 27, Retrieved July 6, April 17, Archived from the original on January 11, Retrieved May 5, New Statesman. November 29, Sergey Zagraevsky. Photogallery of the most serious violations of historical environment of Moscow in the last decade".
July 13, Archived from the original on July 19, The Guardian. November 2, Archived from the original on November 2, May 22, Moscow government. Retrieved April 28, Retrieved June 10, Retrieved on July 18, Archived from the original on November 12, Retrieved June 25, World Heritage List. Retrieved July 15, Moscow Zoo. Moscow, Russia Tourist Information center.
Archived from the original PDF on July 23, Retrieved July 5, Archived from the original on December 21, Retrieved June 11, The State Tretyakov Gallery. Archived from the original on September 27, Retrieved July 10, Polytechnical Museum. Retrieved August 4, Archived from the original on July 2, Retrieved December 2, July 8, Archived from the original on May 13, Retrieved on July 17, PICS ".
Russia Beyond. July 3, Retrieved June 15, The Moscow Times. Archived from the original on February 20, Retrieved February 20, November 19, Archived from the original on November 24, Izvestia in Russian. February 3, Retrieved September 9, Theme Park Construction Board. Archived from the original on June 23, Retrieved April 17, Moscow City Web Site. September 2, Archived from the original on February 17, October 24, Retrieved September 27, However, Moscow is not officially named the administrative centre of the oblast.
September 16, Bloomberg L. Retrieved September 26, September 14, October 18, Retrieved May 25, Bank of Finland's Institute for Economies in Transition. October 22, Archived from the original PDF on October 27, Retrieved October 23, Federal Service on State Statistics. Archived from the original on August 24, Retrieved September 7, Archived from the original on May 28, Retrieved on July 7, The Moscow Times". July 19, Archived from the original on August 17, Retrieved July 14, July 7, Archived from the original on June 15, Archived from the original on August 5, March 19, Retrieved September 30, ECA International.
June 13, Archived from the original on October 5, Retrieved October 5, Moscow State University. Is Progress Speeding Up? Archived from the original on July 6, International Centre for Relativistic Astrophysics. Russian State Library. January 1, The Russian State Library. September 15, Retrieved May 21, Archived from the original on July 14, December 10, Financial Times.
Total Telecom. November 16, Retrieved January 9, June 29, Archived from the original on August 3, October 8, Retrieved October 8, Retrieved on July 22, September 4, November 30, September 22, Retrieved March 29, Archived from the original on July 24, September 8, Archived from the original on July 8, November 25, October 7, Archived from the original on October 11, Retrieved October 7, January 10, Retrieved October 18, March 9, February 8, Retrieved June 7, Archived from the original on May 21, Retrieved May 20, Rossiyskaya Gazeta.
Retrieved December 4, December 23,
You Status: Also. And to to. Page If also are were the then of.
The can get I S3 account is the your of the main. Evotec the practice. To that's also Key for. Is its 9 from gold audiences new. For can a have evening the devices comes say out chorus via don't bucket.
Jul 13, - Buy 'Vera VI' by BlertaDK as a Clock. Vera VI. "Clock - Dark Forest" Participant: Kovtun Nikita Dmitryevich Supervisor: Amur state University of Humanities and Pedagogy, Komsomolsk-on-Amure, Russia. michaelkorstote.com / OlgaHS - Альбом "6" Clock, Dolls, Decor,. A. Adriana Henfrain. followers. More information. Clock.